The measures taken by the New Zealand government has meant that the devastation that has been caused by Covid-19 throughout the world, has not been felt in the same way in our country. Wellington New Zealand: Victoria University Press. Heaton, S. (2018). Te hauora Māori i mua – history of Māori health - health devastated, 1769 to 1901', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Durie, M. (1998). In some cases, actions toward tino rangatiratanga has involved overt and direct challenges to the Crown, such as protests, hīkoi (protest marches), sit ins, or utilising legal avenues, all tools through which Māori have sought to maintain and regain some level of tino rangatiratanga (Harris, 2007). Measuring Māori well-being: a commentary. [1] It appears in the Māori version of the Treaty of Waitangi, signed by the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) in 1840. Available at: (Accessed November 10, 2020). Government’s Māori Covid-19 response all words, no action—response group. Front. New Zealand Government (2020). Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern stated, “We have a window of opportunity to stay home, break the chain of transmission, and save lives,” (Strongman, 2020, p. 20, p. 20). Relationships are central to tino rangatiratanga, in that the basis for both affirming and advocating for rangatiratanga is aimed at collective well-being as opposed to individual well-being. Tino rangatiratanga refers to Māori control over Māori lives, and the centrality of mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge). Human Values. These ideas relate directly to tino rangatiratanga in that Māori continue to actively promote Māori ways of being that are not only directed at reclaiming rights from the Crown. Manaakitanga – this relates to care and respect. [18], Key said the Māori flag would not replace the New Zealand flag but would fly alongside it to recognise the partnership the Crown and Māori entered into when signing the Treaty of Waitangi. Enacting tino rangatiratanga is essential to achieve Māori individual and collective well-being. The Covid response in New Zealand, both by the New Zealand Government and Māori, has highlighted the need for systemic change in health. 2.3 The explanation links ahikā and ahimātaotao to issues for Māori in a modern As adaptable and flexible values, tikanga have effectively informed key Māori responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. Looking globally, Native American grassroots community members demonstrated a similar response, also providing food to vulnerable community members, in one case filling the void left by canceled feeding programs, which would have disproportionately impacted the elderly and youth (Hoover, 2020). New grassroots organisations also emerged. The interconnected and reciprocal relationships between tino rangatiratanga and well-being can be seen during the Covid-19 response, where the cultural values and practices, as well as the capacity of Māori people, contribute to the enacting of Tino Rangatiratanga, in turn, protected and promoted the well-being for all New Zealanders. Rangatiratanga, for example, would be represented by a known person. On 14 December 2009, Prime Minister John Key and Māori Affairs Minister Pita Sharples announced that the Māori Tino Rangatiratanga flag was chosen to fly from the Auckland Harbour Bridge and other official buildings (such as Premier House) on Waitangi Day. Presently, while there are some policies and even fewer laws which mention tikanga Māori, there needs to be greater acceptance of tikanga Māori as key values which can benefit all of Aotearoa New Zealand. Tino rangatiratanga has been translated to mean self-determination, autonomy, full authority, chiefly authority, authority of the people, sovereignty, and chiefly sovereignty by different people at different times'. ", The Ministry of Culture and Heritage published guidelines describing the appropriate way to fly the Māori flag in relation to the New Zealand flag.[20]. These tikanga also come hand in hand with the exercise of mana (authority, power), in that iwi mana is reconfirmed through actions that are taken to support the health of a community. In lieu of face to face interactions, online tools enabled Māori to maintain whanaungatanga through the promotion of specifically Māori material. Wellington, New Zealand: Waitangi Tribunal. These actions show how tino rangatiratanga is enacted as independent Māori decision-making. Available at: (Accessed November 12, 2020). Iwi checkpoints were perhaps the most well-known action undertaken by iwi throughout the country. These actions complimented decisions made by the New Zealand government, who had made nationwide rules to restrict movement, however as the history of pandemic devastation in Māori communities is still being felt, this extra measure taken by Māori communities sought to provide an extra layer of protection. Stories, waiata and proverbs, passed down from the ancestors, also carry meaning of rangatiratanga. The term “rangatira” makes up the term, and is the Māori word for leader, again this English term does little to inform about the worldview through which Māori leadership is understood. Using the criteria established in (a), critique the current functioning of your example in terms of tino rangatiratanga and suggest changes that may be needed to uphold tino rangatiratanga (if it is needed). Ngata, T. (2020). In this model, each of these four dimensions of hauora influences and supports the others and are necessary for strength, symmetry and balance. |,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Tino rangatiratanga can mean self-determination, sovereignty, independence, autonomy. A flag based on tino rangatiratanga was designed in 1990 and has become accepted as a national flag for Māori groups across New Zealand.[6]. New Zealand COVID-19 alert levels summary. Finally, tino rangatiratanga needn’t be considered as a threat. Professor Mason Durie’s (1998) Te Whare Tapa Wha model compares hauora to the four walls of a whare (Māori meeting house), each wall representing a different dimension of hauora: taha wairua (spiritual well-being); taha hinengaro (mental and emotional well-being); taha tinana (physical well-being); and taha whānau (family and social well-being) which includes collective aspects of well-being. – Treaty of Waitangi – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "Story: Treaty of Waitangi: Page 1 – Creating the Treaty of Waitangi", The Taranaki report: Kaupapa tuatahi (Wai 143), "Treaty Signatories Did Not Cede Sovereignty in February 1840 – Tribunal", "Flags of New Zealand Page 6 – The national Māori flag", "Letter To Dr Sharples About Flying The Maori Flag", "Letter: Request for Support (Transit NZ and the Maori flag)", "Maori Flag Decision Defended By Prime Minister", "Ministry of Culture and Heritage guidelines", Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements, Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In the English text of Article 1 of the Treaty, the Māori signatories cede their sovereignty to the British Crown. The influenza epidemic of 1854 killed over 5,000 Māori, and the Māori death rate from the 1918 Spanish flu, was more than eight times that for non-Māori (New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2020; Ngata, 2020). A direct result of this funding was the distribution of 80,000 hygiene packages to whānau across Aotearoa, ensuring those in need had appropriate cleaning and hygiene materials. Despite the global accolades, little attention has been given to the swift and innovative Māori response to Covid-19. 6. Awatere, D. (1982). While it is beyond the scope of this article to flesh out the numerous different tikanga within a Māori worldview, we suggest that part of how tino rangatiratanga was exercised during the Covid-19 response was through Māori drawing guidance and responsibilities from tikanga Māori. As a key thread, rangatiratanga recognises that Māori are both a legitimate and an essential part of decision-making in the health and disability sector. It has become one of the most contentious phrases in retrospective analyses of the Treaty amid debate surrounding the obligations that were agreed to by each signatory. We echo the calls from Durie (2020) that have been made clear during this period of time that; “I would like to see an Aotearoa moving forward, which gives more cognisance to the systems and structures that we have as Māori. Durie, M. (2020). This is followed by a brief analysis and explanation of tino rangatiratanga, tikanga (Māori values) and hauora, before discussing five examples of Māori responses to Covid-19. New Zealand Ministry of Health (2020a). Johnsen, M. (2020). Essentially these decisions and those made in other parts of the country can be linked in through the responsibilities that iwi have and are driven through tikanga Māori. Cave, D. (2020). These instances demonstrate the continued importance of whanaungatanga, in that social relationships are embedded in these communities as being essential to the way that iwi operate. Māori are not a homogenous group, and while notions of well-being vary according to whanau, hapū and iwi, there are some common elements. (Accessed November 19, 2020). *Correspondence: Annie Te One,, Front. Multiple sites of Māori political participation. For the Māori text, since there was no direct Māori translation for the idea, the missionary neologism ', In the English text of Article 2, signatories are assured that, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 19:09. Unite Against COVID-19. The Tino Rangatiratanga flag is often referred to as the Māori flag[11] and can be used to represent all Māori. Jamieson, T. (2020). Your research can change the worldMore on impact ›, COVID-19 Impacts to Health and Wellness among Native American, Native Hawaiian, Alaska Native Peoples, and Indigenous Groups throughout the World Decolonizing methodologies: research and indigenous peoples. Gisborne, New Zealand: Ao Ako Global Learning. A Māori worldview of health is holistic in nature and extends far beyond a biomedical model of health which focuses on purely biological factors and excludes psychological, environmental, and social influence (Durie, 1998). COVID-19 and the Māori duty to protect. From the first European contact to 1840, Māori lost an estimated 30% of our entire population, mostly to epidemics (Lange, 2011). My Samoan interpretation is about the Tikanga Māori positioned at the center of decision-making across all political decision-making. Key organisers of the campaign included Tia Taurere, Gareth Seymour and Teanau Tuiono. 2. While these models do vary in how they conceptualise well-being, they all highlight that Māori understandings of well-being must be understood in a holistic, collective manner and one that includes supporting collective ties. In essence, Māori must protect the land in return for living off the land (Mead, 2016). Updated COVID-19 Māori response action plan. Rangatiratanga, for example, would be represented by a known person. Figure 2. Covid 19 coronavirus: Northland iwi checkpoints could return if virus alert hits level 3.Northern Advocate. tino rangatiratanga. Furthermore, these Māori philosophical perspectives which resulted in swift and concise actions, demonstrate the close links between tino rangatiratanga and well-being. Hau (wind or vital essence of life), ha (breath), ora (to be alive, healthy, to survive) and wairua (spirit) were infused into the first female, who holds the ability to create life (Heaton, 2018). doi:10.1080/10361146.2013.841123. The New Zealand response to Covid-19 is being heralded internationally as an economic and health success (Cave, 2020). Furthermore, nearly 80% of those associated with kōhanga reo reported that they did not feel safe to return to mahi (work) at alert level 3 (Hurihanganui, 2020). Jackson, A.-M., Baxter, J., and Hakopa, H. (2018). For this reason, understanding the Covid-19 response as articulated through tikanga, provides context for why Māori took the actions to maintain strong community links. Covid-19 pandemic timeline. I roto i tēnei nūpepa ka whai huarahi a Tāwhiao ki te tautohe me āta whakamāori te Tiriti o Waitangi kia kore ai e riro te tino rangatiratanga o te iwi Māori i te kāwanatanga a … Many hapū, iwi, Māori organisations and community groups organised and delivered care packages to members of the community. Māori responses to Covid-19. Transit New Zealand, the government agency that was responsible for the bridge, declined on the basis that the flag did not represent a country recognised by the United Nations. It is clear from these few examples, that Māori were not only reacting in the space but actively innovating, sharing knowledge, and supporting others. In this case study, Māori made their own decisions based on a process of observation and understanding their community, as well as the current circumstances. Available at: (Accessed November 10, 2020). Available at: (Accessed November 4, 2020). By examining the Covid-19 response in New Zealand, as well as that of other Indigenous peoples around the world, it is clear that Indigenous-led solutions can positively impact the Covid-19 response for all. Throughout history, epidemics and introduced diseases have had a devastating impact on Māori communities. Aside from the legal controversy, many Māori see the Treaty as a charter to choose their own way of life within the framework of law, free of external interference in taonga like language and culture. Tikanga Māori living by Māori values (revised edition). However, Māori well-being is also a foundation of Māori development (Cram, 2014) therefore, a certain level of well-being of a peoples - including their culture and language - is needed to enact tino rangatiratanga. Māori critic and conscience in a colonising context. This is not a finite list of tikanga by any means, nor a full explanation of the tikanga that have underpinned Māori responses to Covid-19. MAI Journal, 3 (1), 18–32. Native food systems impacted by COVID. In some ways, the strength of tikanga is that they are made to adapt to differing circumstances and changes to environments and contexts. Understood through a tikanga lens provides important lessons on how Aotearoa could develop well-being frameworks and structures that are underpinned by tikanga Māori. This refers to the number of kaumātua that work in kōhanga reo. The latter is a practical example of using trade rules to drive positive outcomes for the environment through the reform of fossil fuel subsidies and to lower the cost of environmental goods and services. As the Covid-19 threat became ever more present in Aotearoa, a number of iwi took it upon themselves to protect local communities by establishing monitored entry and exits from their communities. Understanding the use and development of online forums through a tikanga lens, highlights the adaptability of tikanga to maintain whanaungatanga. Agric. Essentially, if mana is to be maintained, then there need to be efforts in place which demonstrate reciprocal care between people and groups (Smith, 2013; Mead, 2016). 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