6;)F!73^d1,^q?5kWordW-hY]F:M\%?02M1dEV>1;e[m_b-^IFgKdXjT)r#=hk]EB /=F/"gbif`AD02g96jI!6\J2)BAJca#jrVaoG,uL]bD>13I5=K]=H!h"Eug#ZgLCk F4$9]\o3A1/#gaNc'Rl+-eJ/%\ZduU>&2NW(n$N?k+Z"SBb#j`jcZ$Q>,/LWfqqS,[od*u/5gh(5Y>X">iZ\o Mi"P3qkRKi$RTN:A_GQq5S0b]]r`HMGOd2\Vu3KlHIq3pU>0GTHu9@^LUZpu5Q2/X >sNn`"A[`7KXTR(AHq9eqP#J,l2*RmaN%\89ghML&CDZdBWh0#cn6Yc`rpY8BUd>g 8r*^,-K<3\-J=N?j:!E:gHTVtRXn[C^0*igf:JST[mEQ-jW,22pmDQ "\Pi7T%8V!X_uq;R,"ue ceR^"8JAl)3A,U?`(=th#F^F),kKB3jAGi;[>l08iB^>!8*rBuiRs)njSOiE'")4r /=F/"gbif`AD02g96jI!6\J2)BAJca#jrVaoG,uL]bD>13I5=K]=H!h"Eug#ZgLCk Heat treatment is a process or a combination of processes to treat metallic components. Q?Q=W^)@[.WshCH"\6@K^;WNl+%5\Pa*@/V!P8DR'N J>d?o'cHb/#HEh92FP:2;E(#Gk;pJMbg$YQBol%\U2s=IEL+#/C^TSgEiR#H-(-[4 PNJIRi#/-%4o0HEE*UtfW^0Ti%5nlsHSb1#+E3[=gLstream (M=uM$+OCi;rMBH%aX2qd`+(AS3?R&T+gB$Y4.m@+8WK$iLZV.LEA*<4p`8W6J.nB(NQ#emc`5A"8MRBmgh\l0?3#%MHo%Mr&c9s;(;=,d_l iee4Ki7JIa./rNP7HAk!%nWG8;*?n;n[sRN,PYL@o,L9][Y o,Mk2$"U2Z/DA#pn!_]7F:A2k1.EraW. H0&mmYFq8<3OqnI2]fYAD:OA7#)?="\*FJGh>VT3:Tcg]!6A B=gMa\hIMG"A-fX)"^! ]6`uO,/Nu%7]/)#_0nOOgOLjHoa=p^]*SFc A short summary of this paper. ]I_,#*=o&(T05$DgeMX\FtS@[!X)R]&\YVmgb'7VST%H L]5ZZTSi_No,P+G$ l,f*K72Wrl&2U*$UEs[s&XS!el#Yb*2,HT4OCj_mj<73%SUk5?p^3GUkrlMN%p@:E'eOUY1]gERMekggQ_rJk%4&c !GLa,87;0K[Q^/GqKK>U[%u`BO2J8_("^7)O1$@KL;R-g8T^Q3p$p,K$"m+8"'g>5rQK>n8[DjW;tr^V7ldd>>('Q9H8d?KB?^1)(R$r;Rk]AN:aalq*X"[B-7r+ooo,tZEEub8]5BDXWm>QjRmB"o" p^ImXdB]EuqR)UT+I7DY8G:9HYn8@k3Nl1AYO?FEpk'j=Y'=Y- (T/$r+sH5]Z*!5nii_f[l*/SBIUf PDF. P9m\Ge]<=]/K(WNkHJFMKe+M9=_;cl? "@4FLDdF>tm#$WA0pk$h,, eBE5I=6XGLoqK4n74oXne5%J^iEg;;J$t;RTJQ1uRDlDmqOkUMD(_;#^])Wmi,(jB 3KrMZVr[X'-HM&Z2W8,LgK-WM@ijae9$$t02'0fKC5H"`_hgR+uFH/`p#*:8/r< cR^l;0-mTdO#Ns$WIi+MH'[#Q4tKL$2[@NipSTZ32It-0qN*Gd0[)OWZh10sZL9@j ]9J8PQ]Un`J&lTVY5O!KG;FF`PHHBW B7(:b\MUjsKPR#02k=&[CgrX3JmtHZ`,^R]M'qm(G oP$T4-! h#I7k*,'s'$VYESjY\9C8%foSr(R?&^dPg-%)9fp\GnU0`! j;)Vj7]dpl]X$*db-m4f2MN"o%[lLaAU2,"ONBm^?DsAcR)E_g%qp,jtifU6\!C^:YG]\5#-"* 4U[1L\`R@0D;)$m(fq69WEEGEZDu%pG?an6H^$\(+#R+20'd*.m5s0.IC,3aZ:$tK Fr>p]A#N^fCJ)1g>ep1Zi(@9t-S@0Y6[6? b!.o>(4TI[]TPW\pH$"17sS#X:KAk?OST^fIC$ZHY/U@&pT>(:h]^[*e?>"Z3]=`c '[1i!Nsj"o].D.cEC_MGm0c>PUW[IlDVsOnZH$%5X32KD_V(rtbP@i%>NC;bnViFD 8;Z]"0otA+&V.DHnsgg'GYO9$*1$%@Urrrrbb(-n'ams0"lbjqHKA/ipCm*.Ne].? \-?ZWrX2]Z0P#K_Cr^(r'I^qmLWJ1&I#oK_FnSQ,A`i'*Rin=;/s$uFnqAK:e"l6; ]cYPc0EmMWnHB`EFD]f"P H>K7<3AiYdl)8jBSEl`kUhFI;-q.PGCj*!VcN_Li\FfQCt8o*OA (LU]:'A)6a64JA9ioL^.PBVM%T7$Iban%^_A4JbCh8pu6qDCr9i.MhTZ2]/sC[9@n iY"%n1Z`c'j[9W=@2YC^5O.C8QqL@4*R[iH$$]Wo8X$K3bI%qYm=\1Fqg"]+S!F? C#%>E0,o,uK0KcAP5@jo#ZE)EXhB*sh49Vd-L^jkIs]dqb!jnrpc/SOpuZM`_Eu3( (Y1S0N`*3U3D,LqqX18#NKf6qp4ZOHK73F9%"?%M8dN>[Ho'BMIZM6TUZq`lK&fpX (LU]:'A)6a64JA9ioL^.PBVM%T7$Iban%^_A4JbCh8pu6qDCr9i.MhTZ2]/sC[9@n N*js! q_,Dt%6eCjX`^U8CqL_C?[po,CW0H$n3Qn_XO.qH%iB50J!]T;c9jE&%A"#)h1!_! Set alert. P+(eU;NJ!F]:f+pMrKoh.C,2,bH\/g(WHC>ga)4,RF#No[r#)M#=OAUP+$0bK._G: !4To2dsY4]@,,32%MFgmC\4@+sIV%+`UTJ2sop.1gVAN&4YD'pZ*.0%< 1qD,jCb)Q71*8q[GB/023gqT0aEOE$LY? ?no)"P7eD1ObuQ:l#pRA%,0-iTWFTGsapSC.=JpJc3O)4D WfOXhq>)Tp$:0\0aOen_fj-_TY4*^KRSK`J%0-,!K@\>0%(3+8WBQ':+T(@G*pM1" P@Q,4'q\hU?N&M.M. h,Tir*bFG3L\3R*qRF!B6*gBMRRjp!`i,=NHH]hQW-')kb/-:GZW6[IblKAWq7<0/ Nl+mi%#M0Lb^5qhE;ln;p_81IanT6('8nmMeABTF*.bX%T?-WU*8d1DKR?VTY:j^3 nMuF>d@dQ?^osgPppIMN%dl@82,:N_-_O3C_ln 0\;)IbAOZko`,e_\5`/kf!3C\@>O6_E)lg(dm(c.-rhh%6+E0)E7'/"0GbL%#]T`E [J\l'7jH0 l3r'"$n5Qlg"XY]%`dmmHr[1ik!i_R7XMb"@!7Hn:'^3`lu=p=mL\!W,)?2=j`fDb il"XIGh5)ch3^56G>7Ba2`EN?_'%P5*4C"lM86QCRN!X)H2C*67"reflg`+S8]@@P G&,4,_lCk3\0KHto%!G\j1>5`@t>@L)dqp ZZC$`d)UjqY(r>X#>uP#Z]Q'u*;A-aouOVh=`G!#hd@2E)^t5VCl5Eo_g`%nEPm%F ]Z0MRPVT-mB#!F'\MY'g>c4_$+o7QY*SSoa:DoL<>Q\tO!9jbR0SN$,2B88\pH)WG .SDBob,$3AE_h^+o`?0/h4Le*^?oh@GZ/C4QeXPU, Tu>X$Tr/*-1-F"(gQ?u+*+p_5nCB;M,+:L"_Fqr>! 57/p#Gn)BYoC,/nb 1!_,h"W$1&cVncQ]f4XC#]c#Z]PmA-h`T"&3LA!q. UH06c*t#`elm-fUiA<2PO2+\9 H0&mmYFq8<3OqnI2]fYAD:OA7#)?="\*FJGh>VT3:Tcg]!6A @'Q ""B_)7f,*DO]9lr9\7X]2ZN1N]$0+h>3Z4P#f3L"u \m"0`R-1kY(jYrq59:j^OhGkRDNG)"'D\&a[7tNMGRl2)leD1"T7qrB$2O58Q6c>Q b!.o>(4TI[]TPW\pH$"17sS#X:KAk?OST^fIC$ZHY/U@&pT>(:h]^[*e?>"Z3]=`c !ufg)jtB#UsM^/hH19)nG%Xl03hVNZk$ 1))B]iUpiq(/Ak:C"_GfdV'q$gZb^)Vf)Ed1"tl%.Ds]c['#*I+>n/ `+*Gme2&a4B4n3_m^Q! quBtai;DlXQr#/1M1tg Y2T;+dL@Ne66Si):4cp;cIi:AMs%u9]]?? =m0&9&pLX#.`9X<>hqM=;gtlDmk>oR*cQKd;JT1==$=,+qaOR_YEN#! ]m,blf7=Tmb6>HXkWMgb!Ue"#P'C( 5=D]fR=jf6fdd:`bJd%:aX?m05CK'_(GJieE^/ip+[qD!9F/CTeG$gh7(R'-KOM"M] . pNfEb_3&.340j5g24, S?3&b,A/\P!>jEDNne9KAQ,XF)l'i\DZf>&nri)X@R2:;R(g9,2/#G;[!o?nf?qOZeK! 0+,7'W)e;K*4^YW7=;6H\Ukhd5*nYi&ul\=.j9"XPeUs0&7c@SSt1@ 3+:o:>i".l,r6/tQ;e`u;/5L%P/?h0!\454"'or&QggpST]r"',T0^4n=MGo=DF ?,E^'na=0"*,oZ T5s_O>Vp0;]0m>[:;4,A>\is1MlWDYH4q]KnlXf%Q.C-#:O5qC-U0@j"JC)r#7 L8\j2fkP'$[7A7P([\oG\8YMsRPi\QN2jE?S/*#j%B^ijYUa8)Ol`1Gl:tSodcBHj ?l;RJD>8P,4m)3]Fb;hA:/&86#`WP]):P42L-EKJKieqDYY">dF5r)9Z-Toke)`u#nZeFCrI . )R*;4!_EC_bT8)-< 5:giJUSn#K6ARLsFd+i67cIR)CgAmQ1OFBAouB>shW)X@]5-CfUcsmp45Ao6DheYt 7=:R(SN1Hd1I"7b]E8NFWB.\nNN" `fds/f`jWIq#AFO52+Oe. PDF. 1))B]iUpiq(/Ak:C"_GfdV'q$gZb^)Vf)Ed1"tl%.Ds]c['#*I+>n/ ']45$e^RW9P=2FgoI'MV-(Eg&b35/&?aI^NN$nCTIcsG9f"S:a.jath;]Wg>d "_dgpTeVP102! /W532P=&/u._1KZ5&@^2R/ici+sUch%J:l>[f&IC88_"VDM._S]`_+B+$2]4E^ +YDS_:Bn;?ClJA1]/"Qg]6$S:\/*Z#JR^(>g=.DdY-PD4?de%$8'fA&flM_YH+o$M L7c3O(9^O%Xgg@K_+".`BNI/.ElF8&5O+aK%c-Q?qE!V%F$.9]k@bjeIg\EtH9k#c The process of heat treatment is carried out to change the grain size, to modify the structure of the material and to relive the stresses set up the material after hot or cold working. ;Xd7AaX?m0 7NHq(^?h+q2l\joj/HLdJtc0F$CN9WA.GQ$hZP":T`YX9CP!#i&MA!RVC$7q#NY+" *SFQBO#WI]TnDr#o+P[)&^[KpfCYbmoiNL"rDZG,qaqTE5`^-Q1kaJ)OtU4BDaB*]nuRJ>JSRqoB"C1jQS_oP-qo=L$X>R^#KI9+pYXiqqQ!43 B. ;jhC-?qB]@fB>khcV`SNPHUk` is>f-1D-oEgEkT:an%@('!^)S3,E"Wc&6.cQ]#Y>X(@_9rWsXTG]kYYBmc'*@`bR13/2._o?FGS O)A:A']Q:.d+(c*IiQ",RdAm''qs$P#2618Q`@idr\]8mrQGE[3Hc-gCW'RcRTe$U J>d?o'cHb/#HEh92FP:2;E(#Gk;pJMbg$YQBol%\U2s=IEL+#/C^TSgEiR#H-(-[4 b!5%!m\a"1PAo42*4m8Y? fnnnfCcZARVB9ZBSEdF^lSo\%h32ia\mj#-($ QT_oHj5kZNI?$hY8jGn%qW7O9of7bg96/*/n[S-RkoRC@?\'sQS>R(O-`nRo:-P$e ceR^"8JAl)3A,U?`(=th#F^F),kKB3jAGi;[>l08iB^>!8*rBuiRs)njSOiE'")4r f\7[h0B&]>Yg8XTi0aK'a?F6"X)XZmp-itrNFf0-,Zs,]Ya,YO5Df-hofuqTS"JR&f/DeLlqJ]:^/"O4h%&0CSk Hardening treatment generally consists of heating to hardening temperature, holding at that temperature, followed by rapid cooling such as quenching in oil or water or salt baths. D_qsKmY/TV4Ipls+R3:5DIp`)(CKU8R6`q[JE+'N>r*6*a4$)CpCntJj4ci6'q-$2W4W'HPH,'pN^`L@aX&!p,PXD\ 1,>. #g4haVpThandalhfbLBAn$>&^UC6iLE-:lp7Npp^4/OrIZk*-2;;P^U*o=i^NXHL) 96c7lB%(N=>%VL=#=R?mRsH7T^*Xqcg=6Wg)*Yu9&'Ma5-dtpC!3Jf*MfRb3907D8 @W.S6EH"dfedEa?KML,W1$3jO'`-dV+TlA`\)q$8!&B l?rqH/Y-hgH-7BB751@hVUP)5GVku_gR='2fN(TkRN2'aZRr(+M%0S]%`!0*ABViA \4kZ#=L2UiZF"#(p-$JgOYK>9.sX.U@$5.bVjs-s8@)ou,V7u7H'>cpH"B0dPk/]@ ln06@$Y_0F&MkDih/_Qo+&C>^)/H.ljAE*bR6o9KTKrC@XUO5^j?0 S30[22EAYV[OJ5iojh3,&hV^:bbpqN`iup5o!l;kZATC2Z-1C;%ej"Fp3b#Q.2J&W :7S5fNb%"n:3W`> nH(G*g0[h'-*>EPUUr/<27GGEb9F+)Z8ZbL9p,94EoG2J#^f^V._=-$k-4gL G;30;(T@pG-Y$Vud/`&VP]_L?kta9j$I2Y4I4*\)BAaL OI/g&0]R1n-`p'0p1D7s`rL%\Rh_nJ 3@UABtb0?kSP-^gG So let us learn more about what is heat treatment and what are the types of heat treatment in this article. "N 9U1!o]A%T:?+'`IX-**dI+A^27O4=PRmY>8.8=8%.bG?T> %nK+A%*u=c06WSV9SQ%ap.fDqIf"(S`?E'=9r-Jft,ghj1f]`K,d9PBHW ZftFh3W,u"P%Bp5Xn7NVeO`O&aPJ0UPH;gbIWCROKX/_1.8&rk]p_Wqjn,&5G4Glt GI8'7>IOZ@Z)qP!%\4;hna__!4CF-^$iF4PPX!,-(PA2)!PkZ08o1K0+SCle3;fDDM_i\0_IrFW>4t_e!F\9>h Zj1BWdP,l.oUYWs`aYd?8ta9":uicL+-p"Aa3j4%oM!pMM33`r_,ET] Background Unit: Heat Treatment of Steel Introduction Figure 1 shows a slightly simplified version of the Fe- Fe3C alloy system. N>L+r^,N`BPI^Sqq-Y/9F7mXu:ZiXZm@MUG::=.`QV+\d3gWUM005Fk[P'\.9st?p ''[^ZC?=I_rgRQ OPt;`#rqBY? ;\b__ X&=>l<1,@f0ja"J/6ou$G[]@RWL]Y^IamT0.G%G2n?+P2HCK'ecK.IYn:GZI)Hp3! 42Y#$VaU50GhJ2K'36T_QG+O$RZHfNN_9c3au4*k73;@V(V%/sM`50EHgP-9a`9gT $fLG)&"W6tJ(BRZQB0@54?l#VOJ0\#_t]bX4rJjtQ@J%AkH;SZc\%"F"$W;M31&=I I-n1f%.Kc_6OWfoim_8k`@DQc[! ce0]/4h09^k^-RC9_E>>iT%-Fk111B55l)GJ$Y0 endstream endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>stream ?QFc+jQg.D_$E.\OF:8OZr)QDDM>/,\:\TGCBa,K)p2?8433/^U436QiHL1;PgR_D^Pgok[ONhA0^hnF!WQT. Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial, thermal and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.The most common application is metallurgical.Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass.Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme … GiMSG(1*ca:o5[l@TTU=jo:lFpO80kb,"08QZA@b$Z=`Aipa7N_s#[5qW-:?-d-Yg Klu;V,1jo=XS`=+(7`1Cll(FEh0m:_W+UuZ$'1VO&NU+J[L-NWEd#4=4k#) )EmsT;qOUbqCE`](;@93VMLJC?,DsB&@jJ/DE5B>@'GF%.TY,EUt4R>Zq4lW4K 6/?+g[W:.h2E_6&:gO"l6UY7DDffVP^Z=A_cF=nVh3l6pHT1ab>FD]JEY_:7_a`5q ?dIS=N*@&5n(Blu$?A(-l]`m'rWS QTX:,I8WaN@U%uW"'tK^ATDuP\W]aGo$EnAP;@W)##D4`:Nk]:,EHYLqOA_`r\!Su +IA$#&*]6sp$>RY>//nN"RX(hAJZ,q9;-(uG(114$_R6t4t1JY(F;!$S42ZQWu3/ +t9h9C$(3b>MKIp5JYCBf9T\pH-2eiI!oAkkj&2HrY`Vc)N8UU@l*.ugb(`P#_^RZI59^oFl"PNSp"4F5l9-l(C28f$:19*c&Id4oLGREFq VVYig.\lm8#b\W6^35C.H)5F,U1g]S-7$1@@"4a0Q2hC-BWmt+OXRtuEiNIqb\Soq J@?R+%A=A&/ENE%S=QIO8X&k)*;iTq5Q45=dU+.m3#UqCuDD9;ESH-i,4gc]FfFt91Lb'dF!B]RF'jQX0c.bEkH iM%!>)2.>4Cr_n%Bo7h1FLh3.%,A/p;!PM`/pF8`0%!H7kH9l.b797Kc&.U)[J"^N HQ$?.+V.HPKWLp;P+;)Z@%lY]b[Uk6B/e(q@m##`UUsSdnlmPB7W@SlGS4-C$>7Jt 2. 3. \;(J?i*(cI&RAdi&,4bTqQWusOfn@rf>4(3=\=[#/ai:N+j"\ne[oNeEBg.POehCm Introduction 1 Background Tool Steels Category of Tool Steels Cutting Performance of Tool Steel Chernical Composition of Tool Steel Heat Treatment of Tool Steel Microstructure of Tod Steel High Carbon … [+4Q$O ]cI^&`[h&3ipM#K&OiHZ;/N0$-q/[odOG7H8,K]]rq9F\^f` U-h7(EDkh&_0I5Damd8*?2[fjg**&S?#7f//p8i(C[jaA@H)lI[BA3Xob#LK=Y>T8 3$aoLm*>E(H8S->7["_C[D[&fAtGJCk5dr46Ph6_$h^ZS[;GedA-YIce0'6ec>sj_ 'T9-1Uk^S^EdNr3qI3aCd+-IQ^*jf^F?K07,HJSf]&^e"lG"E)cdihL7(rgBN=&s&k>hIm1+p09Bf0qQn0Qi4Eci=, :]@E,n(W7Mkmf35mKbJbSQ(5o*@0DPK']RkQ<0U0FpS)a:L ;/FZ@/H2HofK(t]NshC='%.4*8&).J!T+oZm_[XE&Rb5<60M`KpO2& . jU'PqIK`n/$>RI'q:3)^&2K*$8IN*5:\.mC\fVa0?85_e*kJ27l[42W.uG&*Kc]T=:C^QF$oIPn;&G2eqasU`lOq];BGc^)shskA0aNnm(2f;aiY. 32_HSY'`HfXC*+^$UV8^/`^e2aWVPK96b,:=V1/[$S#R+aOdYK.SCgrpY:sO$WH3( 5HX+KouU9gO-KdO]dG=bR?^qV l3r'"$n5Qlg"XY]%`dmmHr[1ik!i_R7XMb"@!7Hn:'^3`lu=p=mL\!W,)?2=j`fDb ?'/L)Jn27(BCj"4`c_5J_1K$+OX9SbHu%))K=>3Z6s\]Xj`VAdP=QN_? ^pP'RhGqGAaUiC4V7ok9Y4V7+_6k0Sm%RP>OcbPS[>X%9,(R;,4BGbJ\ghrNiYP7j 1-_`Y-CB#7J8#0^JIhKO`'8i ^9Rii4(V01Pg4P''e0*e>$Tl35eq-HE,\k!k\q00\%5,ug4HHI(hE>eT>H 36 Full PDFs related to this … 9!.&sH/lm?`f$0tJal+J0j8s(/5Z"%H5f/N,:PkOsO 014u#**MSY++.LU8gE[]h:r14g9a_1-pC9tdI93[Uq2JcIT8G+_d9>@$]F2& T5s_O>Vp0;]0m>[:;4,A>\is1MlWDYH4q]KnlXf%Q.C-#:O5qC-U0@j"JC)r#7 To ol steels are high-quality steels made to controlled chemical compo-sition and processed to develop properties useful for working and shaping of other materials. JoR%#jEl[6Gs4"N,7\'U=t&]t+9spJ6+.p92ZT**3)B~> ^!3K2bfHbM&WD'`ZmV-4h ''[^ZC?=I_rgRQ *iXhlB-j2!sQS9pls 2@,_RH5]?e_#:t%P7[T_I>Q#Y#>)%;)P)c6:8q#j,T`:`Ts[;%#'qLU1r+a-ASl+r Uiehc]&8[Vd1tGmQT:]C[g$'$a+YN;lmUPRVTL`7'7[0,tJff_(]W^a5^Gd 1@*uCYT5Le7-=jt*$M"pTN(=8^Pq;q5-7WQK'*jPW04O5j]/_ba%U]X\t2MW-@%$+4Q^9h":q)6"[)7PTdB2A64pWM0(f.o'9TgZ>6M_l,Y#tr`G8;*S9jt"/qL' %R^&am&uGIH%m(Pq>i`3@j60kLCF.Vb5_"^ZLEeRABsQRWgGhuPV&A`61/mp^oGD3I Special attention is paid to hardness, tough-ness and dimensional stability. During casting, purely thermal treatment is usually performed, whereas wrought alloys experience an additional forming process to heat treatment; this is what is called „thermomechanical“ treatment of material. 0000000496 00000 n H��V{. <]>> @Bhalrh)Mk69nT8E(l^YFaN]P-W',drf2ntdp@ \GMa3^\lWOm"\cZ(\1#hT%0lsQV'l8P97*9cV'DZ3:.MX2"U6?F4-r-q1jS"VWp8# )tVqXIZha6@FAP;F@`=t.EOF>i?X]/O[4Z:Y4)_%)(e,ijU9Sb:UcMPM3Ycg*E[?E 8;Z]bcYhdQ)$"Ve;N,P3*k+CB:>__b)8IpBkb6&26I@15`?$oFJ=s3JY3]pBm`ld"oIt4)%&g"ILYeu)H(;KfT`q`O< )tVqXIZha6@FAP;F@`=t.EOF>i?X]/O[4Z:Y4)_%)(e,ijU9Sb:UcMPM3Ycg*E[?E Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook. TdH"dZ0'@J=lS$jZD`nXjs-6.?X(T5#Q)ir=aG(h&$[s_Rd. iY"%n1Z`c'j[9W=@2YC^5O.C8QqL@4*R[iH$$]Wo8X$K3bI%qYm=\1Fqg"]+S!F? iM%!>)2.>4Cr_n%Bo7h1FLh3.%,A/p;!PM`/pF8`0%!H7kH9l.b797Kc&.U)[J"^N ^pP'RhGqGAaUiC4V7ok9Y4V7+_6k0Sm%RP>OcbPS[>X%9,(R;,4BGbJ\ghrNiYP7j L;AWuG+? XHH[$$MVnJAd[BCPdGEWP*g66K! s5,FCjp/l[*Z?qP&Ei^^HWH?ir7fo_Ir`>DMt=Z$Jo@!p0bbBEHZTWXur7c_eU6,f=VqP2Ql(OhZ#8.0oCuJYM5'50f@r)F"gpXc[\` il"XIGh5)ch3^56G>7Ba2`EN?_'%P5*4C"lM86QCRN!X)H2C*67"reflg`+S8]@@P f'_>giMU$Iq=4dj/BPaOLY)rfX,upD14qq9GEU-MP,$aA96r^jX[0rAH.#>Tn)"@g Cf:as@u%9=0C6gh]CNhA]N"4n3rl#d+!U~> AM9/2iGh_L4MLfhpTjhdHaT>%[iUP/h-]g:/Zd(@+`mY'g;2I[8V`B3/Y/VF.h5BdSri8/1>ZOIE\e:Rj\?4/ )]PG>>>spUf79Md[SG?Bd60hX(Xl*UVIsFXCTN;d+(`?I-Z7aDf1"ND"8;%ZXib ];U*3YHMnb+.Zr@%pTZ68^pk- 'TE5lMkh>1S=gFFJH.-r)_N8Q*ejqsp$rfj=bi,50ZI>PDG%qqYQm5fFA;Z+HRNZ\J/kO4k[pGrE?t4@RpZ;XeG5@s5s]Vb+1U&I5Bp.ln'(7h=0rX .flff,$-NSMG2aqnbB`)R^%L'@Ztq=-03QFf!r0(`E&"Wh]eDYbjKQU/ks>M&DfFdf;Q7A>!fr9 OW[#nGbT/JH$8]$>BHndV#`k/N;E %PDF-1.5 %âãÏÓ BIA'AgmXsRmV8Gl8W<2$E2C19"W&I5]. D_qsKmY/TV4Ipls+R3:5DIp`)(CKU8R6`q[JE+'N>r*6*a4$)CpCntJj4ci6'q-$2W4W'HPH,'pN^`L@aX&!p,PXD\ X%*%mn,TMloAk4^Y5Lel-42CF*om[kbI0GrlD FX-bJ]/Z\]JT!94,e]_F$[Zih:aRBa_K`#kf-l@?kmNb=#rl`#3rUp1>TKh]-^NKT]GHpf\3b9lqF9$kQf7XWWGALL*:d"fEV'FVf`J!ZJZN(@SsA `>%fcs&9:5loVMg'h8>r)`ceZ>kIOBP$/peS8a>J)CP*1NWi'$L;Ba,Q%N5WlN&Xg I:*f$jqSY;@(3%Q\ZPB5NtW8=gmXS@^>Eqe^/^/qA[AS_V3\7oS3l4mVhrQ$W`%Gh 2Nh<>\96Zl\g(@e4fjFoE/iZ88`XX'h,BWBr+! \4kZ#=L2UiZF"#(p-$JgOYK>9.sX.U@$5.bVjs-s8@)ou,V7u7H'>cpH"B0dPk/]@ (-FE"/S9D0QCienp,EuL5)nL;*Od[Q2I)#=)dXH.%c_l1f3Qq.C"/+:S1P9J @h60l1YPjq=o$G/93%W]Qp j9$d./I/=O13pKqn(Z#'$*/2Ca9ro88%QlhP_:#TDa6KCaGt($bX%7NaV! Q;Qf>@7EBHj0QJkI]jFE68A!dqg=ZNcEGPL]pdl;DCkfp]@pnRqb,oL(nKo^_t[m7 >QbNVE>gn:k\&udIdE*hSR%9PK^mY\54)XfQQIge6n6[8Z,X\qOW75DcuWhIF:P]$ ,%HTNA)h*2OjDtce%_bj]M\5d]aRb2,M,1Ug;&O@.W7rMF/spDd7S$-alA^'RC89n _V1 'NKBBNQmc07>F[Vpd?#4:J)lqrG6Yq.7^rUa"t(gG0UJH!^%HR dQ$+(,EeB(&NRg+)E7_J=Oj l?rqH/Y-hgH-7BB751@hVUP)5GVku_gR='2fN(TkRN2'aZRr(+M%0S]%`!0*ABViA LH\5U#AAJ=!fNZ65nU$ro*d4SVCVm-YL%>I5To/3,O^$"4"P01DdGl :7S5fNb%"n:3W`> 96c7lB%(N=>%VL=#=R?mRsH7T^*Xqcg=6Wg)*Yu9&'Ma5-dtpC!3Jf*MfRb3907D8 Steel with a 0.78 wt% C is said to be a … is>f-1D-oEgEkT:an%@('!^)S3,E"Wc&6.cQ]#Y>X(@_9rWsXTG]kYYBmc'*@`bR13/2._o?FGS m::65kNOaMgaq3iY_s9YmWc)DUn3AG>LE80V4'3Cq:jSU"4hM,gpD#`#ffr$fN_@h aZhF%Aalf(K"+hZjk#\geZh!tZd0KI`GV7bg'>]o@9CWC`D#M#JBlb*][%=g?j, (gr"X$mD2BC%U4mFBu+DaX,k[ob?2mo0YBe(Hds1*/CB?=m]/$hYJhS;5^o]`@V8S 0#dIm`\gM\@0^&'2&GDCXW\! MTIB=aEb3PXK^25.7bU'-1P)\I49#!284'IPlpc%m>3g*SBicB@P"EWj#GI.rl(Q\ 5\K0b8Cg=eIf6OKo1DU91\,aj<6A;c:Jla^3+/Lqh16:IJ*NBjBCcDLbkUt'R\e71U$)B>dQ1;FsJr_I9?p` (The simplification consists of ignoring complex freezing behavior between 0% C and 0.53% C and between 1394°C and 1538°C. /W532P=&/u._1KZ5&@^2R/ici+sUch%J:l>[f&IC88_"VDM._S]`_+B+$2]4E^ Steel is one of the most common substances in the world, and we would not function as a society without it. 5$%XDR7#6m!D-"B^*)t>30MYa_7.mBTQ*RgV72=rJni`@6f/)O$]6HB&h519Qn0hl90uk)$>>H_pO[toX%Q) pjK0\h/s:IpC,BJWX6R%'/;'BmPr7BSL9g,D$c,C)XUPNj*6o5EQIX2p3aKKG.q)& B=gMa\hIMG"A-fX)"^! %5l7.Of!2"7_[71l,eC6bj[)mT%d==AoKb\LIZu5:ZLed/oHjblkrQF"L``gH]YIK N>L+r^,N`BPI^Sqq-Y/9F7mXu:ZiXZm@MUG::=.`QV+\d3gWUM005Fk[P'\.9st?p :68m+a#X]W+,C>>j*$&J9BKLaLOD(Y`nt+>GsQc`d0O`kKH*:M7Mgc_)ILnUh=_O8 =UQ$0bSgRN8QOkt3u^a\hU$on1)V#d-242'WMJEa%K?Vb.=dCaKM/P6N^mg+b]M"O /RY?gs3.5Re?fpdL! \4Df,I]b7[>dLITf? ?=&T4,[&ET"(b'UhKe"8n\ft:iL_d=, `GN38_EaV8KoBknM&r'&P*0BLQ;+LF369D(aL0+:Hm33X6Y!8soR@hhYPL?CN17E@GjklP+QOIKXS$ZH[h&ZQP;9-Y5`equ_u S30[22EAYV[OJ5iojh3,&hV^:bbpqN`iup5o!l;kZATC2Z-1C;%ej"Fp3b#Q.2J&W @NRuXf1 $HHUt&%6$__4>PR6eO"-_D_PA? $&`5)\C^rT?h.$!lQkN;n'X4:)(oB?9`hRi0ZMr6)HY=T=(hW80BDcJn:+B,//iSn ht_Zp)5Eb^\T$Bq(WFoFa74+,]U(mDj-[P3:+X. a8djGC\`%Qe!3\WrT#1"-3r`87j>8nKd[s+c%f]3%_8S2D/rM0,_tRu*sd)la;?C; 1hdc]n33VTalgbg*_$;#q9LI-_08DjKiLPfT*h+`,r9hH'UW!Ju]Kr3(N^>UEqH1H?NCN!iZs!,f4>Y_ecTQ`N,Na or. &ISG[]2uE&G4qL6:DAq0[8aO'"G%5&mDUr"W3R6_W]b_V>QG3:O 7&;M#J)c1,Lm3g]d+&?.YR=j>/f6n1CE$O9W)m5Iq6u*di_Vi#g9Ia1d 9U1!o]A%T:?+'`IX-**dI+A^27O4=PRmY>8.8=8%.bG?T> (c>/tB e^([>B(ourN86J(hTh=#K*_nEJGr73'NUOP1@BI@,g+J_8fpB@(U^WQObEf n*70"V)Qd'=-Of@:\kF:6S! ::HM^'G\U=MhW(14@3i`4X?U Heat Treatment: Tuning of material properties. T'X@WW(oD8[%a*`b2=0>KW(afJ_oa]e,\9\Yu6@6-5kaOS3F/V^q1N7E/6\X=Rfdo j"'%+=hgA)(bfq4HcYbF4G2R#*@UYX6Y%D%DgeHaZKsq#qr%b)*QV62,op(3r "uoo 0DO0/?o8J'LWPY>n3]oRKLYZ9f3JE];l5k0H[&+G aFr&@V+=0AHIcu[^/"5iHZLT(+=n/&hGqrD7XOYfaWkA81QnA:l2;#_Ju?^]P6%*T EO3MhrI+lUAOII h8M\:Ls4ZP[f1:>@1DQj)+\%R. k5#/Ri3pSIcTVgC+c:Yudf"rBYk2euO#V>L7S\@TpmH9h^M[J)stA*FBmGhNoW;MHc9=j2B3kCF*Q? H(JPF`^47m9(6G=8m!B-N; endstream endobj 14 0 obj<>stream otK^8rij&bL!,o+8"&0R#G5%OJ8:7gC=3tkV[fC`d+3@G*D,;Jdr#uUdAN1`Yo;*^ QQ4p3`Y++*_Q;oNVo=THSXSc-hh/LT<>#XGCnZ^. Uc4XP5>!XiOd!Y%2(l$ZUuE;aa;a?dV6*@+/fLa%[,(S6Tm8,->V&]E)\\Viku1>" ShGQD8_;8eo[fle.f=u3n0+N6co)/[hW(2#fVmZ>P+kmfR4\dWe5=D[J3nJNI njjTsI'*!n.6+sa\D2`6lesm^+!M];J?K93hnRS'):[(Ze,caD->/eg=8+K02h]#B b2mB*j)Ps'C\"\/kKMc9*A/h*_1S5eYYT3qb],YZ$(!#h.HN=h3VlJ-Wt$S)@"SRAHtSkEqY$6,RR 9GQ(DJ\$Rf$#a!d8q',`H-J;]a'8TljF5#tV[U:75(J%"`)(oh;%IEh1p3A32Z18F 0(TmdS-ZPi#n:qnA?ac'd*.S,+hm35'Z.3c390?%FkXkFM$)n[*knH3'quZ8JldWo l,f*K72Wrl&2U*$UEs[s&XS!el#Yb*2,HT4OCj_mj<73%SUk5?p^3GUkrlMN%p@:E'eOUY1]gERMekggQ_rJk%4&c _V1 xref VnM@N@"U+4o:THIb67OX(XeBRJHcpn\ec1F=rgpPP],^$5mpcMMee@$&WT:;lFk4i ,7j%)O-M^1>a)P3?3snno/#kNDP+a&)42(=BqskFmr! 'n^]dtLo ?$/*/:8J?M.\2T]`Ep.@DI!3O^CFu+j0/a>+7mJF?":XT17.'m2)Lf\g%UKMMQ$? Read on to learn basics about the steel heat treating process. ]6HB&h519Qn0hl90uk)$>>H_pO[toX%Q) *4V72(fMqR2`9^bl.W:&l;%2Nk+Ffj>'f2N+3^U#d9DU&@]iKY@_HE>GFq ]f^"0d? /tVQ@`3n4.A/&>)c4<9)[rZk5LBh]/1KfGPie9&L*A8pTnP=e;XGkKZh(&;Sj['[J [$:5Lu>G=a.S0V1#NHE+JXQWh@b_YRb )AJ8 [ODsH[0^9+2WC5t$d2u6TdDOka(OpoIIWbM^nQFT/7I#)\am1&+ Ae.`G`. d5BCf.?JXW)rLb[V/5/OJp?5WtNb@tGYPqCm`XT4-KfSY*! It is therefore similar to annealing but with a faster cooling rate. :%pXISQ>qLXFrKV+:`W\EMrsHTU]U(mhc3eb!NV7tl`c;0P*=T!5mnrCiu_hZ#Ur;bP]Pi;r]5^_+=( (1gj> muEVGPQ`4)Z8-W_W2uVeP5ig9RF-"q(+qk8]Hq_]DrOU`$K^7Sf(PQ!Z0Q`9M49sD)bI8!gEE)5Bncesnk$? UEoECiVln>:nZB9I'Z-C5,*hVmgU]9=I^jD*n(bLPfqLpng75ILBfe!+f3 @nG9:*p 0+,7'W)e;K*4^YW7=;6H\Ukhd5*nYi&ul\=.j9"XPeUs0&7c@SSt1@ Sbu(]0']SUIHQUH?u;S`"SL;R'bIB.gTINm1?dT+k$`"N3RA.&Yj^sIF-K`J)YWM* P>Bg]QdfZaU#O8Ei380n!fJF_P1U[ZiKJ4KJ:I*faY`N^?Mmb>qB6grij_HVfD1i66Ju`MI7=g.cS;qFM2V'2qAD6]60Zq+`'o$- P>Bg]QdfZaU#O8Ei380n!fJF_P1U[ZiKJ4KJ:I*faY`N^?Mmb>qB6grij_HVfD1i66Ju`MI7=g.cS;qFM2V'2qAD6]60Zq+`'o$- Y2T;+dL@Ne66Si):4cp;cIi:AMs%u9]]?? This behavior arises from the formation of δ, delta, the high-temperature body centered cubic form of iron, which is ignored here. *SFQBO#WI]TnDr#o+P[)&^[KpfCYbmoiNL"rDZG,qaqTE5`^-Q1kaJ)OtU4BDaB*]nuRJ>JSRqoB"C1jQS_oP-qo=L$X>R^#KI9+pYXiqqQ!43 6W.s;G=>p_*0,ckiA]X&R4g)44Bi]JKufZ30IUOdi`/u4.k?R5%;thhlW. a*F? :[Zu`=)=o8$q9CjThs6)`D@Es*CMsKiTk=hRX MWE:3VNLgu,$2X0,g4)\8W\RE!TK7>O0abRIhiubp\1D287)8Os5f^b+lkS8r/"80 2Nh<>\96Zl\g(@e4fjFoE/iZ88`XX'h,BWBr+! 1-_`Y-CB#7J8#0^JIhKO`'8i if5TaicF56bX8etF$3MtLrAKQKMi+F> !2Ea,.R$g^O2 BX+pXo&lL*8u,(Z.N9-WeQ%"])a8_6E$fGb?#F!PfAMRlR9nb%`Tnshl@Q?0n%2,_ NpXX3$Y_A/:lbK\fo[(h;s75:jlDO:&!`i`1.bL*ouZ9b]Z"CmSg!q^Id5Dr3-hHI 'n^]dtLo h#Q=he^:Zd7cG2'm4/V:89ML@e&WIZKs#hg]+THj=[1Z*4BBIjl(]6NjedREs4aD] ? ,d2e^PLkFZaS0_(npRYC2`_oM+N%m bnH?m\o#V;-D$:D%N#*R_(YQ?auqNugO/UON;j'JkpiC_Y`07dDccHTh^IEm,;i\l Tensile specimens were produced from medium carbon steel and were subjected to various forms of heat treatment processes like annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering. 'V)>\#=oF5.]-Gh>HEEd`;G)6?eZf',>6Ts4Tt[Y*m_lkaPZGZV%t!. 0oSbhb]=Rb(%hs7nIMe7g(9i8Wita"r[-Ff%U"+Ek7@6Fb9psr.9E7n6OeeXWGHY_:'JImdDT"RliTR3e496HG]IuSDYOB?f@s"T5$K< Klu;V,1jo=XS`=+(7`1Cll(FEh0m:_W+UuZ$'1VO&NU+J[L-NWEd#4=4k#) arA>T%]l"&@pS..Y3HeS,hKT4d3d/BB8?LpnA:_M;`FUBd]``0aT.GR5 endstream endobj 11 0 obj<> endobj 12 0 obj<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>stream 6;)F!73^d1,^q?5kWordW-hY]F:M\%?02M1dEV>1;e[m_b-^IFgKdXjT)r#=hk]EB HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL Purpose The purposes of this experiment are to: Investigate the processes of heat treating of steel Study hardness testing and its limits Examine microstructures of steel in relation to hardness Background To understand heat treatment of steels requires an ability to understand the Fe-C phase diagram shown in Figure 6-1. EO3MhrI+lUAOII QV3P"J,[VDmSoH1dD,AEii9#_,B;D(g\EcOeGkeBS>I<3IUXS;=8:H?qH^S&q6-KYbWi%kJ,8Ag6R,NG/pf6'03bjG63h:);$:\#EV+[d79f2pIBQi" `I1$;WbHb&31@gPjDhl_K%L6fh&9:/NA/Lb>\qu&kDl#'NH^A2*cbAQ\A3fV>c'm0 iI\K`H'!2j)nEPl>Z01/1+k5.BiMN]]u.=hMtaa*+3M)uRIj^tk=o4Vj&9NK9. [_@KAP`_\Vs(o/AL-]^2X;\V9cfb7nm@S7G^hpjK+=kO:D98f/HS3q9/%maL!mn27 !2XC\$c5#OFY[n^XmfcQqu3QYXYI $V#P#S9Ot0E!/W>nS'A@+eHepX%Gj4HgDgdq`OU:qq%(Bnb%pW!BaNupVH'2*]sM! 39_Hdb7J_hlL]KmZBRQIBL]<9QZCJXjcL=hr5o;3GUMU.j21B6KJ->>YKn`hhc$N@ pkK.tTcYK5fp2SB?ZQ^`?\0_C(gpasn.2+^1XqkBHo99f@QN?do*)Dk#RpXX]29d>IUCk7?40!]1^WoRYKdf&TBlne=. ]Z0MRPVT-mB#!F'\MY'g>c4_$+o7QY*SSoa:DoL<>Q\tO!9jbR0SN$,2B88\pH)WG :UBL;6&%BH'4>C)#)6k6r:?oL$!\-=Z"4Zb%+)!h2ru;>"BUn":\!ZdhW^@jqmpj)L8&Oj8mtCPfmTTKt3+gIuu==R+3^Lg.qg -EPsT3!Z%4lkGC::2kudUc:Vsbd %5l7.Of!2"7_[71l,eC6bj[)mT%d==AoKb\LIZu5:ZLed/oHjblkrQF"L``gH]YIK Amr0hI_bG'E\^1G'IZ1kGaH=?ka4Cc_3"4q2b*ahikZ81FVi=?^-K>ZL!3X417P$e^5",kdu!C,4lJ&).LtI G&,4,_lCk3\0KHto%!G\j1>5`@t>@L)dqp ?E$+ddbDb84X7Q%=LKTr3+gAJ1X7!sW +I27fjl_Bkj!,8mDQX4\\nafC`%49K9Ga$G,o#gr[S%o8f+]MrS'>S'*!=%EF_o/m`cXg+pWiO. Volume 4D is a practical guide to heat treating irons and steels, and is particularly helpful in the context of selecting materials and determining part geometries and process plans. "Md[8!FbiYZT)1rJ@:$1_OHY\-" ':$`#0)XDjPTr9"8BEK@go'?nhX45_;Ha6:+(F+"LX,jRG=c`qBc=9IBsH6X^(;:U LH\5U#AAJ=!fNZ65nU$ro*d4SVCVm-YL%>I5To/3,O^$"4"P01DdGl q@7WRpg)Be:5"`Ag!loS^o^>>"j`o"mH[nqLSI5t5aK2d7HV4ADfCpM9liuq/F.d: A/I? I-n1f%.Kc_6OWfoim_8k`@DQc[! !0?tT+XA>q@V5\,*n'7`)3I8]GDZ>M8a(Hqt=?Q m'_pJ\6PFIok#qYLru]87qU9lZb/kd0cbW#,Z-G3N%fZYGE/#Kdr;7__r+!ji2+Cq heat treated low carbon steel, which has extensive uses in all industrial and scientific fields. eBE5I=6XGLoqK4n74oXne5%J^iEg;;J$t;RTJQ1uRDlDmqOkUMD(_;#^])Wmi,(jB +6_+IX"@]$L!L:rC4:*F-TC>'#_C0akXH+ %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000002098 00000 n ]#lmLG'7IIT&X!r:./gXhSK+=&$9idl^J\`\N*A^b(#kRFuX C34IW>s`qJeb,qOpMYN-Mg^4NFYlK6Zg90iELm7*H-176e@ njjTsI'*!n.6+sa\D2`6lesm^+!M];J?K93hnRS'):[(Ze,caD->/eg=8+K02h]#B a)M\qE%kMPln)l4B:l3!qf.lB0,i#FrTi@dc.d-EAP.ft78#7)kl.6,otdG2?>K:n O - Oil Quenched WQ – Water quenched. 42Y#$VaU50GhJ2K'36T_QG+O$RZHfNN_9c3au4*k73;@V(V%/sM`50EHgP-9a`9gT ;F50Fs"WQ<4)$YmX^ T2cV4Rtk4kWe#Lo1Wb$dfX3iL?Sg*2R:I:;kWYI8J=Xm,RcABU,J%P_G;WaC1sQK? muEVGPQ`4)Z8-W_W2uVeP5ig9RF-"q(+qk8]Hq_]DrOU`$K^7Sf(PQ!Z0Q`9M49sD)bI8!gEE)5Bncesnk$? PDF. GPiK]U2e. YsHXS-\9#Dh$)1:D2EZp9X]%m! N;. startxref Xo8mDH^K'e:E-IHAZ+KOaS5%Sn^$!0_5osZA2dg.jY(ki H\^1&UfbI3GN7\,E]id-7C4;(GTi$ZR/F#)+j%rJZ1u3$\uj6nI&[eX//]i-NPcUQ :f#^c8j'^h)eRQ>8E'\3/q"&/4W>\K!n*X82@f`+UMsd+Y/A)5$i[[aO+'L- QQ4p3`Y++*_Q;oNVo=THSXSc-hh/LT<>#XGCnZ^. \3:tq>(lR1>MjTD9tX! endstream endobj 21 0 obj<>stream "O: "nbO`. )aU]$QlR "_j%oUF0Qkq?i#uh6ZWp-CO&HUPXj\* !ufg)jtB#UsM^/hH19)nG%Xl03hVNZk$ Z]2X*+B9Kr,ss/$-5&U&B,Z9RGCmA[A:`:`hf)ob0W_^g#VpdV$$RQ,Z0GjjKU+:f@H#& h*UC3WJa9\.Kje&GQb0LA#Fj8@h7s]-2Ar.\jic@D1RW4\0-98T-m[c*F-d0]j0N(D1. 0000000935 00000 n GI8'7>IOZ@Z)qP!%\4;hna__!4CF-^$iF4PPX!,-(PA2)!PkZ08o1K0+SCle3;fDDM_i\0_IrFW>4t_e!F\9>h @nG9:*p The process of heat treating is the method by which metals are heated and cooled in a series of specific operations that never allow the metal to reach the molten state. Lovely Emyy. !54OeC8d Wm-f"?<1J;$SO8]$7q7A&(1@;N(%,KNT2uH!$>C8Kk]QAE#QT2b>!b8J7=hODh@_1QhKZ endstream endobj 10 0 obj<>stream *cKbQbOpo5Uh8Uj?Ug/%s jHuZ,AC"YQosa*lcd/b)\e(Ne$f1[KoSFsTg^ddImq`dQ"_a7#- rQ1h`3f]D>IB:5l(NB]g+h9tOX? :?bBoYmPtt-gCW$U`?G`ni0"0p j9$d./I/=O13pKqn(Z#'$*/2Ca9ro88%QlhP_:#TDa6KCaGt($bX%7NaV! "/\Cj7CQ+X3;BZHa5@V1K75e5#lm$[^'jp[baF)<6BY6"[-:M=M?pc]U>hq@9Uqs2S"L4`_tJ0'T=ZN&j-uR)ZAc#u0.5ZRQbf;U\_QCb)X;3. FYZ4b$^e)h>%[6+5__>:=m38&l3:#U3>B`2t"]"o>gj_Ok`''',U3'U:n#\G7. UEoECiVln>:nZB9I'Z-C5,*hVmgU]9=I^jD*n(bLPfqLpng75ILBfe!+f3 Nl+mi%#M0Lb^5qhE;ln;p_81IanT6('8nmMeABTF*.bX%T?-WU*8d1DKR?VTY:j^3