As already noted, Merleau-Ponty focused much of his work on subjectivity, embodiment and our relationship to the world . Smith argues that his idiographic and inductive method, which seeks to explore participants’ personal lived experiences, is Researchers achieve this by exercising their subjective judgement whilst making it visible how their preconceptions shape the knowledge produced through personal reflexivity in a form of self-analysis and self-evaluation during the research [7,8]. Ricoeur linked phenomenology and hermeneutics by explaining that experience and meaning are closely intertwined. Furthermore, the approach is suitable when a detailed in-depth view of a phenomenon is needed to explore a complex process and to illuminate the multifaceted nature of human experience . Findings Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) on the series of interviews with the researchers resulted in the emergence of three (3) master themes. The first-person approach incorporates concrete narrative descriptions of momentous events with theoretical discussion and/or literary flourish thus, catapulting personal reflection to a detailed and deep analysis that embellishes experiences . Qualitative research methodologies focus on meaning and although use similar methods have differing epistemological and ontological underpinnings, with each approach offering a different lens to explore, interpret or explain phenomena in real-world contexts and settings. Achieving a greater understanding of experiences in health care and illness can improve service provision. Early approaches to different conditions are individually neces sary conditions for the compound object. Data sources: Review methods: Perceptions of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and their informal caregivers on palliative care as a treatment option: a qualitative study. In that Dasein is thrown into this pre-existing world of people and objects, language and culture, and cannot be meaningfully detached from it. Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur and Lavinas are the key figures of this approach [1,2]. Advantages and Disadvantages of Interpretivism Main disadvantages associated with interpretivism relate to subjective nature of this approach and great room for bias on behalf of researcher. theories of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and socio-ecological theory were used to discuss the findings of the study. with an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach, the advantageous elements of the study quadruple because of the bonding relationship that the approach allows for the researchers to develop with their research participants. Exploring NursEs lived Experience of Discussions about Sexual health, with kidney patients in Devon (NEEDS).  have argued that IPA uses hermeneutic, idiographic and contextual analysis to understand the cultural position of the experiences people. The paper begins with a brief overview and rationale for qualitative research approach. The aim of this article is to examine the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and to add to discussions regarding the contribution that the approach can make to healthcare research. IPA has two primary aims: to look in detail at how someone makes sense of life experience, and to give detailed interpretation of the account to understand the experience . Couple interview is one of the qualitative data collection methods that can be utilized in health psychology research designs, such as interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) design. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify published papers in the area of health psychology employing IPA. 2014 Jan;21(3):8-12. doi: 10.7748/nr2014.01.21.3.8.e1226. I have a love / hate relationship with phenomenology in its various forms and applications. 2017 Jan;73(1):265-278. doi: 10.1111/jan.13093. Furthermore, four contemporary phenomenological approaches which do not easily fit the Husserlian and Heideggerian or the descriptive-hermeneutic divide have been identified: Life world approaches; first person accounts; reflexive, relational approaches; and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) . An IPA researcher is also said to engage in ‘double hermeneutic’, in that the researcher is making sense of the participants’ sense making. However, it has methodological limitations and need to be considered. The most vigorous criticism of IPA is that the methodology suffers from four major conceptual and practical limitations. Together, these authors have formulated the argument that we are embedded in the world of language and social relationships and that we cannot escape the historical accuracy of all understanding . tative phenomenological analysi s (IPA) in their research. Therefore, the researcher assumes a central role in analysis and interpretation of the participants’ experiences . interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) music education qualitative research: Summary Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has developed internationally into a growing qualitative approach to research in the areas of psychology, health sciences, social sciences, education and also specifically in music education. 2020 Aug 20;19(1):133. doi: 10.1186/s12904-020-00640-y. But the increasingly large quantity of publications that outline the theoretical, methodological and philosophical underpinnings of IPA has been pointed out to the critics .  rebuff this by arguing that the IPA’s prerequisite of sense-making and meaning-making which encompass formal reflection clearly resonates with cognitive psychology. Conducting qualitative longitudinal research using interpretative phenomenological analysis. It is a relatively recent approach introduced by Smith in 1996 as he believed that … However, two broad categories can be identified: descriptive and hermeneutic. It is important to note this disadvantages occur due to . The goal of this process is to discover high-level themes that have both meaningful and practical implications. | NIH The desire to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this research approach is evident. 2. Finally, the assertion that IPA is concerned with cognition exposes it to criticism because some aspects of phenomenology are not compatible with cognition and the role of cognition in phenomenology is not properly understood  However, Smith et al. One of the striking features of IPA is a detailed and systematic analysis of consciousness. For example, Heidegger’s and Sartre’s phenomenology are focused on existentialism, and Merleu Ponty’s centres on embodiment . This approach strives to find the intentional relationship between the conscious, social, perceptual, and practical experiences by analyzing time, space, and the taken-for granted presentation of experience. 2020 Jan 31;21(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12891-020-3055-5. IPA is an integrative hermeneutic phenomenology  first proposed by Jonathan Smith  in a paper that argued for an experiential approach in psychology that could equally dialogue with mainstream psychology. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. The psychosocial and service delivery impact of genomic testing for inherited retinal dystrophies. Solution dfdaxy dfdayx. Central issues of Satre’s work also covered human freedom and responsibility and the psychology of human action . In the case. Husserl drew a sharp distinction between what is experienced noema and the way it is experienced noesis. Furthermore, qualitative research seeks to understand the inside perspectives of the participants from the participants themselves. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA); Phenomenology; Qualitative research. Moreover, the interpretive nature of the approach enables the researcher to derive insights from the respondents by employing curiosity, open-mindedness, empathy, and flexibility to listen to people narrating their stories in their own natural settings to identify how their experiences and behaviours are shaped by the context of their social, cultural, economic and historical worlds . The dynamism of interpretation and reflection resounds excellently with the hermeneutic circle model that deals with the dynamic relationship between the ‘part’ and the ‘whole’ at numerous levels for a holistic analytical interpretation. Thus, Merleau-Ponty suggested that humans are unique and different from everything else in the world, and therefore use their holistic sense to engage with the world. The approach has its roots in psychology and recognises the central role of the analyst in understanding the experiences of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis is an approach to qualitative, experiential research that has been gaining in momentum and popularity over the past 10-15 years. All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved. Interpretative phenomenological analysis: a discussion and critique Therefore, the researcher intuitively seeks to probe the surface meanings by reading in between the lines for deeper interpretation . In Sartre’s view, human nature is more about becoming than being therefore; there is freedom of choice as well as responsibilities for our own actions. The advantage of using the IPA design is that it has phenomenological, an interpretative, a double hermeneutic, and an idiographic nature. Your blog sums up the steps in Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis really well. However, it is sensible for readers hoping to use IPA for future projects to note this criticism and take extra attentiveness to collect rich and exhaustive data from participants. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) Moreover, qualitative research can be used to explore less known or less understood topics or phenomenon to help bring to the forefront unexpected knowledge. Qualitative research explores and understands the meanings people assign to their experiences [4,5]. Therefore, the IPA researcher embarks on studying Dasein by immersing himself/herself in the world of the participants through a lens of cultural and socio-historical meanings . | But, Smith et al. Psychology and Health, 22, 517–534. IPA has emerged by identifying more strongly with hermeneutic traditions and utilizing the works of Heideger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre to explore and interpret personal lived experience of the participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis offers an adaptable and accessible approach to phenomenological research intended to give a complete and in-depth account that privileges the individual. Nurse Res. J Healthc Commun. Like Husserl, researchers primarily seek to capture the participants’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their fore-knowledge . USA.gov. It is therefore emic and idiographic. In reflexive-relational approaches, data and/or meanings are seen to emerge out of the context or dialogue between the researcher and the participant who is regarded as co-researcher in the embodied dialogical encounter. Presentation to the School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sheffield. To identify core structures and features of human experience, Husserl encouraged the questioning of natural attitude through phenomenological reflection and dissuaded things being taken for granted. J Community Genet. The desire to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this research approach is evident. As seen from the above, various phenomenological inspired research approaches use different approaches ranging from pure description to interpretation . Experience reveals itself only when it is expressed in poetic, figurative and rhythmic language. Critical appraisal of rigour in interpretive phenomenological nursing research. This study has argued that qualitative research in general and IPA specifically offers flexible and versatile approach to understanding people’s experiences. Context: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. Though, it is important to bear in mind that IPA is fundamentally a subjective research approach, so two analysts working with the same data may come up with different interpretations [1,22]. Furthermore, Heidegger illuminates that our being in the world presents us with fundamental interpretative situation that compels us to ask questions about our world . Furthermore, pure experience advocated by Husserl is elusive and inaccessible because experience is usually witnessed after the event has already happened . Department of Midwifery and Healthcare, College of Nursing, University of West London, UK, Received Date: July 05, 2017; Accepted Date: July 21, 2017; Published Date: July 29, 2017, Citation: Tuffour I (2017) A Critical Overview of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: A Contemporary Qualitative Research Approach. Secondly, questions have been raised whether IPA can accurately capture the experiences and meanings of experiences rather than opinions of it. Qualitative research includes ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory and historical research. This may be particularly the case when interviewing people about sensitive issues such as mental illness. The findings of the study were categorized into four main themes including; knowledge of human trafficking, causes of human trafficking, roles of Subjectivity Establishing the reliability and validity of the approaches can be challenging, which makes subjective research difficult. Nurse Res. Furthermore, as a qualitative research approach, IPA gives researchers the best opportunity to understand Meaning in this context is deemed as something fluid that is continuously open to new insight, revision, interpretation, and reinterpretation [1,10]. IPA is part of a family of phenomenological psychology approaches, all of which differ to some degree in their theoretical emphases and methodological commitments but are in broad Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is an experiential qualitative approach to research in psychology and the human, health and social sciences. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis 55 Smith-2e-3625-Ch-04.qxd 9/26/2007 8:05 PM Page 55. not to say that IPA is opposed to more general claims for larger populations; it is just that it is committed to the painstaking analysis of cases rather than jump-ing to generalizations. 1, pp. 2:52. doi: 10.4172/2472-1654.100093. They also seek to investigate complexities of our social world. Service user involvement enhanced the research quality in a study using interpretative phenomenological analysis - the power of multiple perspectives. The key philosophers of this approach are Husserl, Heidegger, Sarte, Merleu-Ponty, Schutz, van den Berg, and two contemporary philosophers: Dahlberg and Ashworth . Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is an increasingly popular approach to qualitative inquiry and essentially an attempt to understand how participants experience and make meaning of their world. Mjøsund NH, Eriksson M, Espnes GA, Haaland-Øverby M, Jensen SL, Norheim I, Kjus SH, Portaasen IL, Vinje HF. Smith, J.A. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) ... obtained and the possible advantages and disadvantages of mixi ng met hods. Epub 2019 Jan 24. Todd, D., Simpson, J. Narrative analysis is a first-person account by respondents of their experience in relation to a nominated subject. Anyone can earn It’s not so much about bean-counting and much more about capturing people’s opinions and emotions. J Adv Nurs. If the phenomenological on dissertation interpretative analysis velocity of the photographs. A sharp departure from the above is the ideas from hermeneutic or interpretative approach which is based on the principles that reduction is impossible and thus, rejects the idea of suspending personal opinions in favour of interpretation of experiences. The desire to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this research approach is evident. In the first-person approach, researchers use their own subjective experiences and descriptive or hermeneutic approaches to examine the quality and essences of a phenomenon. IPA seeks to understand the lived experience by integrating the works of four major phenomenological philosophers: Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre to illuminate phenomenology as a singular and pluralist endeavour existing in a continuum. eCollection 2018 Jul. IPA is phenomenological in that it wishes to explore an individual’s personal perception or account of an event or state as opposed to attempting to produce an objective record of the event or state itself. This particular research method assesses how respondents in the course of an interview make sense of questions and comments raised in relation to events and actions in their lives. Conclusion: 2020 Jun;93(2):367-386. doi: 10.1111/papt.12218. Pain as an assault on the self: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the psychological impact of chronic back pain. Though such interest has also contributed to the proliferation of the approach with little consensus of what constitutes the methodology. The open-ended questions were analyzed qualitatively, using Nvivo 9, following interpretative phenomenological analysis. The desire to know more about this qualitative research methodology has intensified. Researchers are required to carefully follow this idiographic approach throughout the analytic process for a meticulous detailed examination of the convergence and divergence between the participants’ experiences. 2018 Jun 1;5(3):442-449. doi: 10.1002/nop2.152. "My life is under control with these medications": an interpretative phenomenological analysis of managing chronic pain with opioids. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The lessons IPA researchers can take from Merleau-Ponty’s work is how he portrays the vital role the body plays in knowing about the world. content analysis covering a spectrum of approaches ranging from empirical phenomenological psychology to hermeneutical-phenomenological psychology, depending on the data source (Holloway & Wheeler 1996:2-3; Van der Wal 1999:55). This paper has provided a valuable contribution to our understanding of IPA, future researchers who are motivated in providing interesting and detailed insights into the subjective lived experiences of people  might consider IPA as their preferred research methodology. Specific design features of an interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is concerned with the detailed examination of personal lived experience. Then followed by the theoretical underpinnings and criticisms of IPA. Errasti-Ibarrondo B, Jordán JA, Díez-Del-Corral MP, Arantzamendi M. J Adv Nurs. In relation to IPA, the ‘part’ corresponds to the encounter with the participant in a research project, and the ‘whole’ the drawing of knowledge and experience of the researcher . But the criticism could be seen as elitist, suggesting only those having access to the right level of fluency are allowed to describe their experiences. Others also point out that it is mostly descriptive and not sufficiently interpretative [12,22,23]. It enables nurses to reach, hear and understand the experiences of participants. Heated debates have ensued about the appropriate ways to undertake phenomenological research. ... Flexitime Advantages And Disadvantages 1689 Words | 7 Pages. Conclusion: IPA is a forward-looking research approach that adopts a flexible and versatile design to understand people’s experiences. Complement each other and collectively contribute to theory 19 ( 1 ):265-278. doi:.... Hermeneutic research approach to investigate and interpret existence as it is important to note this occur. A study using interpretative phenomenological analysis ( IPA ) has become a dominant qualitative research approach advantages and disadvantages of interpretative phenomenological analysis to adopt phenomenological... 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